Do You Know?2017-10-24T12:57:12+08:00

Part A – What is the definition of House Areas?


1.       Site Area

The Site Area is the area of a building plot measured between the survey boundary lines. It defines the property/development site.


2.       Gross Floor Area

Gross Floor Area is the total area of floor space within a building measured between the centre line of party walls including the thickness of external walls but excluding internal voids except ducts, refuse chutes and lift shafts. An expansion of this definition is given below:


a)      GFA Includes

i) All covered floor areas.

ii) All areas for lifts, enclosed staircase, toilets, etc, within the car park floors.

iii) All floor areas of covered verandahs and terraces from second storey and above

[concession is given for exclusion at one level only as in item (b) (iii)].

iv) Open areas used for commercial purposes such as beer garden, eating areas, petrol kiosks, drive-ins and commercial establishments.

v) Bin centre and electric substation detached from the main building.


b)      GFA Excludes

i) Uncovered floor space open to sky except those in item (a) (iv).

ii) Covered floor spaces used for vehicular circulation and parking area.

iii) Walkway/footway abutting existing/proposed roads at 1st storey level only.

iv) Covered main entrance (e.g. car porch, canopies for non-commercial purposes).


For residential development, Gross Floor Area has the same meaning except that:

i) For conventional housing development the GFA will also include covered car porch/ car park; and

ii) For townhouse and condominium housing developments where housing units are provided with Private Enclosed Space such Private Enclosed Space will be included in the Gross Floor Area Calculation.


3.       Plot Ratio

The Plot Ratio is the ratio of the gross floor area of a building to its site area.


Part B – Authorities “House Clearance” Requirements


Diagram 1 – Front View of House

Note : Front Green Buffer Line is 3m + 4.5m = 7.5m


Diagram 2 – Back View of House


Diagram 3 – Section View of House


Diagram 4 – Staircase Clearance


Part C – Clauses Extracted from Singapore Institute of Architect (SIA) Building Contract 


1. That it is a condition precedent to an Extension of Time (EOT) that the Contractor notify the Architect in writing of any event, direction or instruction which he consider entitle him to an extension of time together with a short statement of reasons why delay to completion will result.


2. The Maintenance Certificate shall finally discharge the Contractor from any further physical attendance upon the works for the purpose of making good defects.


3. The Contractor can object to a Nominated Instruction of a Nominated Sub-Contractor, but not Designated Sub-Contractor on grounds of financial standing or solvency or technical competence or reliability.


4. In issuing Interim Certificate, the Architect may take into account any valuation of dispute, claim, set-off, defence or counter claim between the Contractor and the Designated or Nominated Sub-Contractor.


5. The Architect shall deliver a Schedule of Defects specifying all remaining defects, omissions and other faults not later than 14 days after the expiry of the Maintenance Period.


6. Subject to certain provisions, the Contractor is generally fully responsible for all Designated or Nominated Sub-Contractors and Suppliers.


7. A valid objection shall be justified on the available known facts at the time of the Nominated Instruction.


8. The Contractor will be paid one-half of the Retention Monies on the issue of Completion Certificate to him by the Architect.


9. For Measurement of Variation, if the Contractor is absent, the quantities shall be binding if the Quantity Surveyor send it to the Contractor within 14 days of measurement.


10. The term “Variation” shall mean any change in the original contract intention as deduced from the Contract Documents as a whole describing or defining the works to be carried out and in particular shall include:-

a) the addition of further work, materials or goods

b) the omission of work, materials or goods

c) the demolition of or removal of work, materials or goods no longer desired by the Employer or the Architect.


11. Upon the Commencement Date, the Contractor is entitled to free and uninterrupted possession of the whole site as defined unless otherwise stated in the contract.


12. The Contractor should confirm in writing any direction or instruction issued verbally by the Architect within 14 days of its being given.


13. The Contract Documents shall be read and construed as a whole and no special priority other than that accorded by law shall apply to any one document or group of documents, nor shall the “contra proferentem” rule apply either to these Articles or to the Conditions of Contract.


14. All Certificates shall, unless otherwise stated, to be issued to the Contractor.


15. The Architect shall supply such further or working drawings, specifications, details, levels, instructions or other information from time to time during the construction period as may be necessary to amplify and explain in detail the work to be carried out by the Contractor.


16. The Contractor has 28 days from receipt thereof to dispute the classification of an Architect’s Direction or Instruction.


17. The Contract Documents generally include the Articles of Contracts, the Conditions of Contract and its Appendix, Drawings, Specification, Bills of Quantities (BQ) and such other letters or documents as the parties may agree and attach hereto.


18. The Contractor shall before the end of the Maintenance Period submit a final claim to the Architect with a copy to the Quantity Surveyor (QS) containing details of all quantities, rates and prices and any adjustment of the Contract Sum or additional payment or compensation claimed by the Contractor under the terms of the Contract.


19. There are eight grounds upon which the Architect may issue a Termination Certificate to the Contractor.


20. Any Dispute between the Employer and the Contractor as to any matter arising under or out of or in connection with this contract or with the carrying out of the works and whether in contract or tort or as to any direction or instruction or certificate of the Architect shall be referred to Arbitration.


21. The balance of the Retention Monies will be paid upon the expiry of the Maintenance Period or the issue of the Maintenance Certificate whichever is the later.


22. Within 3 months of the Contractor’s final claim or of the Maintenance Certificate, whichever is the later, the Architect shall issue a Final Certificate.


23. There are four grounds upon which the Contractor may serve the Employer a written Notice of Termination to terminate his employment under the Contract.


24. Arbitration between the parties may commenced at any time notwithstanding that the works are not complete.


Please click here for the contract documents.